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Grant, embarked with his wife on a two-year tour of the world. At almost every location, he was greeted as a hero. In England, the son of the Duke of Wellington, whose father had vanquished Napoleon, greeted Grant as a military genius, the primary architect of Union victory in the American Civil War.
Otto von Bismarck, the Chancellor of Germany, welcomed Grant as a nation builder, who had accomplished on the battlefield something—national unity—that Bismarck was attempting to create for his own people. The various meanings imparted to it offer a useful way of outlining why the Civil War was so pivotal in our own history.
In its aftermath, during the era of Reconstruction, Americans struggled to come to terms with these dramatic changes and, temporarily, established biracial democratic government on the ashes of slavery.
In the physical destruction it brought to the South, the economic changes it produced throughout the nation, and the new ideas it spawned, the Civil War altered the lives of several generations of Americans.
The war produced a loss of life unprecedented in the American experience. Thecombatants who perished nearly outnumber those who died in all other American wars combined. For those who lived through it, the Civil War would always remain the defining experience of their lives.
The Civil War is sometimes called the first modern war, although what constitutes "modernity" in warfare is a matter of debate. It was the first war to bring the full impact of the industrial revolution to bear on the battlefield. Railroads transported troops and supplies, and railroad junctions such as Chattanooga, Atlanta, and Petersburg became major military objectives.
The telegraph made possible instantaneous communication between generals and between the battlefield and home front. The war took place soon after a revolution in arms manufacture had replaced the traditional musket, accurate at only a short range, with the more modern, and deadly, rifle and bullet.
This development changed the nature of combat, emphasizing the importance of heavy fortifications and elaborate trenches and giving those on the defensive—usually Southern armies—an immense advantage over attacking forces.
The rifle produced the appalling casualty statistics of Civil War battles.
At Gettysburg, there were nearly fifty thousand dead, wounded, and missing. Total wartime casualties numbered well over one million, in an American population of around thirty-two million.
The Civil War began as a conventional contest of army versus army but by the end had become a war of society against society, with slavery, the foundation of the southern social order, becoming a target. Certainly, the Union overshadowed the Confederacy in manpower and economic resources.
But the Union also had a far greater task. It had to conquer an area as large as western Europe, while the Confederacy, like the American patriots during the War of Independence, could lose battle after battle and still win the war, if their opponents tired of the conflict.
Thus, political leadership was crucial to victory, and Lincoln proved far more successful than his Confederate counterpart, Jefferson Davis, in mobilizing public sentiment.
One historian has suggested that if the North and South had exchanged presidents, the South would have won the war. In this sense, the Civil War forms part of the nineteenth-century process of nation-building.
It was conceived as neither the reclamation of ancestral lands nor the institutional embodiment of a common ancestry, language, or culture. Rather, as Lincoln himself insisted, the nation was the incarnation of a universal set of ideas, centered on political democracy and human liberty.
These principles, of course, had been enunciated by the Founding Fathers, but only with the destruction of slavery could the United States seriously claim to represent to the world the idea of human liberty.
It is easy to forget how decentralized the United States was inand how limited were the powers of the federal government. There was no national banking system, no national railroad gauge, no national tax system, not even reliable maps of the areas where the war would take place.
The army in numbered 14, men, the federal budget was minuscule, and nearly all functions of government were handled at the state and local level.
The Civil War created the modern national state in America. Whether the war retarded or encouraged economic growth in the short run remains a point of debate among historians.
But the economic policies of the Union forged a long-lasting alliance between the Republican Party, the national state, and the emerging class of industrial capitalists. Slavery lay at the root of the political crisis that produced the Civil War, and the war became, although it did not begin as, a struggle for emancipation.
Union victory eradicated slavery from American life. Yet the war left it to future generations to confront the numerous legacies of slavery and to embark on the unfinished quest for racial justice.
The destruction of slavery—by presidential proclamation, legislation, and constitutional amendment—was a key act in the nation-building process. A war begun to preserve the old Union without threatening slavery produced one of the greatest social revolutions of the nineteenth century.
The old image of Lincoln single-handedly abolishing slavery with the stroke of his pen has long been abandoned, for too many other Americans—politicians, reformers, soldiers, and slaves themselves—contributed to the coming of emancipation.
Inwith military success elusive, Radical Republicans in Congress and abolitionists clamoring for action against slavery, and slaves by the thousands fleeing the plantations wherever the Union Army appeared, Lincoln concluded that his initial policy of fighting a war solely to preserve the Union had to change.
The Emancipation Proclamation, issued on January 1,profoundly altered the nature of the war and the future course of American history. It was the Proclamation, moreover, more than any other single wartime event, that transformed a war of armies into a conflict of societies.The Civil Rights Movement Of The 'S.
In the history of the United States there have been many social changes that have occurred. The Civil Rights Movement of the ’s was one of the most significant and important for the equality of all people. Analyze why the struggle for Civil Rights for African Americans has been so difficult.
The struggle for African- Americans' Civil Rights to be recognized has been a difficult one because of the. The only two African Americans to serve as United States Senators in the nineteenth century were Blanche K.
Bruce and Hiram Revels, both of Mississippi.
Frederick Douglass was appointed to several important governmental positions in the years after the Civil War, including Minister Resident and Counsel General to Haiti, Recorder of Deeds, and U.
I. Introduction (pp. A. Civil rights are policies that extend basic rights to groups historically subject to List and explain four ways in which the southern states denied African Americans the right to vote.
1. “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of.
Civil Rights Movement: Desegregation Introduction In A Nutshell In the early s, a public opinion survey revealed that the vast majority of white Americans believed Blacks were content with their social and economic conditions.
Civil rights groups targeted advertising agencies to help integrate and promote positive depictions of African Americans in advertisements and the media. With generally positive responses from large companies, advertisements were able to play an important role in social and cultural reform.