January 7, ] volution is the cornerstone of modern biology. It unites all the fields of biology under one theoretical umbrella. It is not a difficult concept, but very few people -- the majority of biologists included -- have a satisfactory grasp of it.
A family is a monophyletic unit; all its members derive from a common ancestor, and all attested descendants of that ancestor are included in the family.
Thus, the term family is analogous to the biological term clade. Some taxonomists restrict the term family to a certain level, but there is little consensus in how to do so.
Those who affix such labels also subdivide branches into groups, and groups into complexes. The closer the branches are to each other, the closer the languages will be related.
This means if a branch off of a proto-language is 4 branches down and there is also a sister language to that fourth branch, than each of Essay on genetic modification two sister languages are more closely related to each other than to that common ancestral proto-language.
The term macrofamily or superfamily is sometimes applied to proposed groupings of language families whose status as phylogenetic units is generally considered to be unsubstantiated by accepted historical linguistic methods.
There is a remarkably similar pattern shown by the linguistic tree and the genetic tree of human ancestry  that was verified statistically. Dialect continuum Some closely knit language families, and many branches within larger families, take the form of dialect continua in which there are no clear-cut borders that make it possible to unequivocally identify, define, or count individual languages within the family.
However, when the differences between the speech of different regions at the extremes of the continuum are so great that there is no mutual intelligibility between them, as occurs in Arabicthe continuum cannot meaningfully be seen as a single language.
A speech variety may also be considered either a language or a dialect depending on social or political considerations. Thus, different sources, especially over time, can give wildly different numbers of languages within a certain family.
Classifications of the Japonic familyfor example, range from one language a language isolate with dialects to nearly twenty—until the classification of Ryukyuan as separate languages within a Japonic language family rather than dialects of Japanese, the Japanese language itself was considered a language isolate and therefore the only language in its family.
Language isolate Most of the world's languages are known to be related to others. Those that have no known relatives or for which family relationships are only tentatively proposed are called language isolatesessentially language families consisting of a single language.
An example is Basque. In general, it is assumed that language isolates have relatives or had relatives at some point in their history but at a time depth too great for linguistic comparison to recover them. A language isolated in its own branch within a family, such as Albanian and Armenian within Indo-European, is often also called an isolate, but the meaning of the word "isolate" in such cases is usually clarified with a modifier.
For instance, Albanian and Armenian may be referred to as an "Indo-European isolate". By contrast, so far as is known, the Basque language is an absolute isolate: A language may be said to be an isolate currently but not historically if related but now extinct relatives are attested.
The Aquitanian languagespoken in Roman times, may have been an ancestor of Basque, but it could also have been a sister language to the ancestor of Basque. In the latter case, Basque and Aquitanian would form a small family together. Ancestors are not considered to be distinct members of a family.
Proto-language A proto-language can be thought of as a mother language not to be confused with a mother tonguewhich is one that a specific person has been exposed to from birth being the root which all languages in the family stem from.
The common ancestor of a language family is seldom known directly since most languages have a relatively short recorded history.
The earliest instances of what might today be called genetic algorithms appeared in the late s and early s, programmed on computers by evolutionary biologists who were explicitly seeking to model aspects of natural evolution. A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a. Genetic engineering and biotechnology Outline the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to copy and amplify minute quantities of DNA. Polymerase chain reaction is used to copy and amplify minute quantities of DNA.
However, it is possible to recover many features of a proto-language by applying the comparative methoda reconstructive procedure worked out by 19th century linguist August Schleicher. This can demonstrate the validity of many of the proposed families in the list of language families.
For example, the reconstructible common ancestor of the Indo-European language family is called Proto-Indo-European. Proto-Indo-European is not attested by written records and so is conjectured to have been spoken before the invention of writing.
Other classifications of languages[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.genetic modification of plantsand human health.
Genetic modification is the field of medicine that has gained much attention in recent years.
The authors have given the awareness about the impact of genetically modified plants, which humans consume as food.
Genetically modified plants produce many impacts upon human health. NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) – Researchers have uncovered a type of DNA modification in the human genome previously thought to be absent from eukaryotes.
A must-read for anyone who wants to participate in schwenkreis.coms. This article lays out the land for evolutionists and creationists alike, presenting the concepts of and the evidence for biological evolution.
In the last two decades, the widespread application of genetic and genomic approaches has revealed a bacterial world astonishing in its ubiquity and diversity. This review examines how a growing knowledge of the vast range of animal–bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology.
Inevitability of Genetic Modification in Redesigning Humans Essay Words | 5 Pages to present the immense possibilities biological modification will introduce, and appeal to pathos to create fear and excitement, Stock argues that the rebirth of humanity is certain and the world should accept the change.
SA Forum is an invited essay from experts on topical issues in science and technology. The World Food Prize laureates for were announced in June. They are Marc van Montagu, Mary-Dell Chilton.