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Scope and Role of Distributive Principles Distributive principles vary in numerous dimensions. They vary in what is considered relevant to distributive justice income, wealth, opportunities, jobs, welfare, utility, etc. In this entry, the focus is primarily on principles designed to cover the distribution of benefits and burdens of economic activity among individuals in a society.
Although principles of this kind have been the dominant source of Anglo-American debate about distributive justice over the last six decades, there are other important distributive justice questions, some of which are covered by other entries in the encyclopedia. These include questions of distributive justice at the global level rather than just at the national level see justice: Although the numerous distributive principles vary along different dimensions, for simplicity, they are presented here in broad categories.
Even though these are common classifications in the literature, it is important to keep in mind they necessarily involve over-simplification, particularly with respect to the criticisms of each of the groups of principles. Some criticisms may not apply equally to every principle in the group.
The issue of how we are to understand and respond to criticisms of distributive principles is discussed briefly in the final section on methodology see Methodology. Throughout most of history, people were born into, and largely stayed in, a fairly rigid economic position.
The distribution of economic benefits and burdens was normally seen as fixed, either by nature or by a deity.
Only when there was a widespread realization that the distribution of economic benefits and burdens could be affected by government did distributive justice become a live topic.
Now the topic is unavoidable. Governments continuously make and change laws and policies affecting the distribution of economic benefits and burdens in their societies. Almost all changes, whether they regard tax, industry, education, health, etc.
As a result, every society has a different distribution at any point in time and we are becoming increasingly more adept at measuring that distribution. More importantly, at every point in time now, each society is faced with a choice about whether to stay with current laws, policies, etc.
The practical contribution of distributive justice theory is to provide moral guidance for these constant choices. Many writers on distributive justice have tended to advocate and defend their particular principles by describing or considering ideal societies operating under them.
They have been motivated to do this as an aid to understanding what their principles mean. Unfortunately though, as a result of this practice, some readers and the general public have been misled into believing that discussions of distributive justice are merely exercises in ideal theory—to be dismissed as a past-time of the academic elite rather than as something that is crucially relevant to current political discussion.
This misunderstanding is unfortunate because, in the end, the main purpose of distributive justice theory is not to inform decisions about ideal societies but about our societies. To help correct this misunderstanding it is important to acknowledge that there has never been, and never will be, a purely libertarian society or Rawlsian society, or any society whose distribution conforms to one of the proposed principles.
Rather than guiding choices between ideal societies, distributive principles are most usefully thought of as providing moral guidance for the choices that each society faces right now.
Other theorists are arguing for changes to bring economic benefits and burdens more in accordance with what people really deserve. Sometimes a number of the theories may recommend the same changes to our current practices; other times they will diverge.A market economy is an economic system in which individuals own most of the resources - land, labor, and capital - and control their use through voluntary decisions made in the marketplace.
It is a system in which the government plays a small role. Social marketing is an approach used to develop activities aimed at changing or maintaining people’s behaviour for the benefit of individuals and society as a whole. Combining ideas from commercial marketing and the social sciences, social marketing is a proven tool for influencing behaviour in a sustainable and cost-effective way.
Exchange is an essential, and multifaceted, part of economic systems. Types of exchange include market principle, prevalent in capitalist societies, redistribution, or moving goods to a center, and reciprocity, exchanging goods.
While social exchange theory is found in economics and psychology, it was first developed by the sociologist George Homans, who wrote about it in an essay titled "Social Behavior as Exchange." Later, sociologists Peter Blau and Richard Emerson further developed the theory.
Marketing Mix – The 4 P’s of Social Marketing Social marketing was “born” as a discipline in the s, with the increasing need to “sell” ideas, attitudes and behaviors, a paradigmatic shift from the need to market products only.
A market system is defined by an economic system in which economic decisions, such as specialized production, distribution and the freedom to exchange among individuals use the market mechanism to determine the pricing of goods and services which are guided solely by the aggregate interactions of a country's citizens and businesses which causes.